Files from the Whispered History of Romanians (12)

In the period May 8, 1921 –  April 4, 1944,

the Communist Party of Romania

had seven general secretaries,

of whom six were of

allogenic ethnicities: Jewish, Ukrainian,

Polish, Bulgarian and Hungarian


Communist Party of Romania was the forerunner of the Romanian Communist Party in the period May 8, 1921 – October 16, 1945.

Because it officially declared that Romania is a multinational, imperialist state, which annexed Bessarabia from Russia, Transylvania from Hungary and Cadrilater from Bulgaria, territory to be retroceded, the Communist Party of Romania was passed in illegality on April 5, 1924, under Ion I. C. Brătianu government (6).

Creation of the Comintern (n.a. in Russian writing “Коммунистичекий Интернационал” in transliteration, Komunisticeskii International), the Communist Party of Romania began to have two  political bureaus in the Stalinist era, until the disestablishment of Comintern, on May 22, 1943.

However, being under the direct control of Joseph Stalin, which is why the Comintern was also called Comstalin, the Communist Party of Romania was struggled to keep under silence a long series of aspects.

One of these was that the general secretaries, except the first, named Gheorghe Cristescu, were allogenic, belonged to ethnic groups, namely, Jewish, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian and Hungarian, in personns of: Elek Köblös, Jewish ethnic, Vitali Holostenco (n.a. in Ukrainian writing, Виталий Яковлевич Холостенко, in transliteration, Vitalii Iacovlev Holostenko), Alexander Danieluk Stefanski (n.a. in Polish writing, Alexander Danieluk Stefański), Boris Stefanov Mateiev (n.a. in Bulgarian writing, Борис Стефанов Матеев) and Stefan Foris (n.a. in Hungarian writing, István Fóris). There was also an interim general secretary, Bela Breiner, of Jewish ethnicity.

In the interwar period, all the congresses of the Communist Party of Romania, excepting the first and the second, were held abroad: Congress I, in the period May, 8 – 12,  1921, in Bucharest, when as general secretary was elected Gheorghe Cristescu, Congress II, in the period September 3 – 4, 1922, in Ploiesti, Congress III, in August or September 1924, in Vienna, when as general secretary was elected Elek Köblös, Congress IV, in the period June 29 – July 2, 1928, in Kharkov, when as general secretary was elected Vitali Holostenco, Congress V, in the period December 3 – 24, 1931, in Gorikovo (n.a. locality situated near Moscow), when as general secretary was elected Alexander Danieluk Stefanski .

It is noteworthy that Boris Stefanov Mateiev became general secretary in 1936, not after being elected at a congress, but designated by the Comintern as a result of friendship with Georgi Dimitrov, who, on July 25, 1935, had arrived general secretary of the Comintern, post never left till on May 22, 1943, when the Comintern was disestablishment by Joseph Stalin, to gain the confidence of the Allies.

Among other specific activities of a communist meritorious illegalist, Boris Stefanov Mateiev compiled and sent to Moscow so – called “list of Trotskyists”, which included almost the entire leadership of the Communist Party of Romania, including Marcel Pauker, who was “purged “by gunshot on august 15, 1938. In 1938, Boris Stefanov Mateiev considered it is better to flee the country in Moscow, where he worked beside Georgi Dimitrov. Taken aback by the Ribbentrop – Molotov Pact and not knowing which is the new policy of the Kremlin, Boris Stefanov Mateiev published in the “Communist International” (n.a. in Russian writing, “Коммунистический Интернационал” in transliteration, “Kommunisticeskii International”), the official newspaper of the Comintern, an article in which he continued to stigmatize with proletarian anger the fascism and the national – socialism, which was verge cost his life; his luck was also named Georgi Dimitrov, which has protected, indeed, to avoid he staying in Joseph Stalin’s murderous gaze, he took him in Bulgaria to build communism there.

The interim leadership of the Communist Party of Romania, caused by the absence from the the country of Boris Stefanov Mateiev, has been exercised by Bela Breiner till March 10, 1940, when he died of stomach cancer.

Then, the same Comintern appointed as secretary general Stefan Foris, who led the party until April 4, 1944.

If the manner of organizing congresses abroad can be justified by the fact that the Communist Party of Romania has been passed in illegality, but, choosing the general secretaries only from the ethnicities reveals the extremely small depths of the roots of this party among Romanians, who were in overwhelming majority. In this regard, two aspects are relevant. The first refers to the name of Romania, that means not a party of the Romanians, but one implanted in Romania. The second is the very small number of members of this party, from the category of pocket, for example, between 794 and 1,150 members registered in June 1944, that is a member of about 20,000 inhabitants. Like a bad note for this party, based on a story of Eugen Cristescu (n.a. director of the Special Intelligence Service in Romania), it seems that a significant part of them was in the pay of the Special Intelligence Service.

As an aside, in addition of classical ideological guilts such as Trotskyism, working with the Special Intelligence Service has been invoked repeatedly during the trial, if they were, and during the purges by shooting, ordered by Joseph Stalin, as in the cases of Elek Köblös, Vitali Holostenco and Alexander Danieluk Stefanski. That is, all general secretaries of the Communist Party of Romania, elected at the congresses held abroad, under the guidance of the Comintern, were killed!

Under the same charge, another general secretary of the Communist Party of Romania, Stefan Foris, was executed without trial on the order of Gheorghe Gheorghiu – Dej, this time. He was arrested on June 9, 1945 and brutally questioned even by Gheorghe Pintilie, born Pantelei Bondarenko, with the diminutive Pantiusa, who was the first director of the General Directorate of State Security, established on August 30, 1948. Stefan Foris died in 1946, due, apparently, to the hits with a crowbar, received on the head, executed by Gheorghe Pintilie (n.a. it is not known the exact date of death of Stefan Foris).

During “dejisto-ceausist” communism it was said very little, more in whisper  about the fact that in the period May 8, 1921 –  April 4, 1944, among the seven general secretaries of the Communist Party of Romania, except one, the others belonged to ethnic groups.

After the revolution, started on 17 and ended on December 25, 1989, when the communist bicephalous hydra was shot, Elena and Nicolae Ceausescu, it began to flow compromising revelations of the Communist Party of Romania and, of course, of the Romanian Communist Party. But, there is always a but. The nostalgics for communism, who worked in culture and have contributed to a greater or lesser, depending on their desire for affirmation and personal capacities, to the building of the communist dictatorship in Romania, they always had in head the idea of rehabilitation of communism and, implicitely, of their. Therefore, through the influence they have, sometimes very strong, have tried, tried and will try to hide all the black spots of the communism, including ethnicity of the general secretaries of the Communist Party of Romania, in the period May 8, 1921 – April 4 1944.

As an aside, Ion Iliescu, with high positions before and after 1989, for example, Minister with Youth Problems in the period December 11, 1967 – March 17, 1971, President of Romania in the periods Mai 20, 1992 – November 29, 1996 and December 20, 2000 – December 20, 2004, in any book, whose author is, he did not remind that his father, Alexandru Iliescu under the pseudonym Ignat, was one of the 38 delegates of the Communist Party of Romania, who attended the Congress V, in Gorikovo, and there signed a joint statement in which, inter alia, it was made the assertion: “contemporary Romania is not in itself a union of all Romanians, but a typically state with several nations, created on the base of predatory system of Versailles, on the base of occupation of foreign territories and on the base of enslavement of some foreign peoples. The bourgeoisie and landowners in Romania, doing their own imperialist plans and fulfilling, at the same time, the charge from the imperialist powers in Europe to create on Dniester an outpost against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, conquered Bessarabia, Transylvania, Bukovina and Banat and subjected to a stunning national oppression and to a semi-colonial exploitation of the 8,000,000 Moldavians, Hungarians, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Germans, Turks and others. ”

These were the Romanian communists, nothing but the ax queues of Russian imperialism; they even from the interwar period supported the fragmentation of Greater Romania!

And this truth must be said loud and clear, not in whisper or, if it could be possible, passed under silence, as wish the nostalgics for communism, the majority of them with “multilaterally developed” activity for establishing and supporting “dejisto – ceausist” dictatorship, activity paid “in conformity of  the quantity, quality and social importance of the work” (n.a. quote from the Law 10 of November 25, 1972). And nostalgic in this category were well paid, had all kinds of material advantages compared to the general population, because they stood very well, especially on the criterion of “social importance of the work”!



Doru Ciucescu


The text is part from the volume in course of translation “Files from the Whispering History of Romanians”

(The translation from Romanian and the adaptation are realized by the author himself)