Files from the Whispered History of Romanians (6)

Iuliu Hossu,

the “herald” of the Great Union

closed in Sighet,

in the “dejist” communist regime,

under house arrest until his death,

in the “ceausist” communist regime

 

The Romanians had throughout their history a range of astral moments, not too long, from which, from the far shines the Great Union, the creation of the state Greater Romania, of enrollment nearly plenary of  the territory in which the Romanians have been in majority. On December 1, 1918, in Alba Iulia, it was met the Grand National Assembly of Romanians from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, made up of 600 elected members from the 120 electoral districts as they were established in 1910, to which were added 628 representatives of various cultural, professional and social organizations. In a general enthusiasm, the Great National Assembly of Romanians voted for the union with Romania of the provinces Banat, Crisana, Maramures, Satu Mare and Transylvania, all integrated abusively in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, officially dissolved on November 3, 1918, when the Hungarian government, led by Mihály Károly denounced this union with Austria. The same day, in front of the crowd gathered in Alba Iulia, “The Unification Resolution” was red by Iuliu Hossu, Greek-Catholic bishop of Gherla.

It is important to note that on March 27, 1918, the Council of the Country in Chisinau proclaimed the union of Bessarabia, including Hertza Region, with Romania, and on November 28, 1918 National Council in Chernivtsi decided by a large majority the union of Bukovina with Romania.

The official recognition of the Great Union was carried by the Treaty of Trianon, on June 4, 1920, in the case of Banat, Crisana, Satu Mare, Maramures and Transylvania, by the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919, in the case of Bessarabia, including Herta Region, and by the Treaty of Saint Germain, on September 10, 1919, in the case of Bukovina, and, also, by the Treaty of Neuilly, on November 27, 1919, in the case of Cadrilater, a territory annexed on August 10, 1913 by the Treaty of Bucharest, but lost on May 7, 1918, following the Treaty of Buftea-Bucharest.

The Great Union was not celebrated as it deserves by the communist regime, led by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, and Iuliu Hossu was a forbidden name. The communist regime, led by Nicolae Ceausescu, gave a somewhat ampleness for this event only in 1968, but the history was again falsified, accrediting the idea that Vasile Goldis red “The Unification Resolution”.

Even the poet Adrian Paunescu, the initiator and the leader of the Cenacle “The Flame”, in those 1615 music and poetry shows, held from 17 September, 1973 to 15 June, 1985, shows without wooden language of communist propaganda, but with tributes strained, often subtly, addressed to Nicolae Ceausescu, did not recall to “the generation in jeans” about the Great Union and less about Iuliu Hossu.

The reason of this keeping under silence of the Great Union was the afraid of the “dejist” and “ceausist” nomenclature to not offend the leaders of the Union of Soviet  Socialist Republics, the communist empire in which was included Bessarabia and northern half of Bukovina, Romanian provinces raped from the Greater Romania after the Moscow Ultimatum, from 26 June, 1940, territorial rape strengthened by the Peace Treaty of Paris, signed on February 10, 1947, followed by the Border Treaty between Romanian and Soviet governments.

After the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the Great Union began to be celebrated with due respect to this great height fulfillment of the dream of centuries of the Romanian people.

However, even under the new circumstances, the name of Iuliu Hossu has been still held in silence, done forget. After 2007, after I wrote the book “Over Pruth and further…” I was invited to participate in numerous events held on the occasion of December, 1 in Bacau, where I did not hear even once uttered this name. In Alba Iulia, within the same type of manifestation, but with the participation of representatives from all Romanian communities from diaspora, I noticed that also there was omitted this name, even Adrian Paunescu, the principal animator of the event, has not remembered him.

As an aside, Adrian Paunescu, born on July 20, 1943, in Bessarabia, specifically in the village Copaceni, Balti county, now district in the Republic of Moldavia, has not written any poem about Bessarabia during the communist regime of Nicolae Ceausescu, about whom, in the poem of 14 stanzas “I Thank You”, composed after the speech made by the general secretary on 6 February, 1986, stated, among other things: “Whole, I am yours, so I feel you again (…) I see you apotheotic, like a Voivode ( …) I thank you for all, Good and  Honest Hero”.

Only after 1989, he dared to write, that’s right, in his declamative, remarkable style, the poem “Bessarabia on the Cross”. I used at the address of Adrian Paunescu the term “dared” from the quality of whom, in 1962, I had the courage to publicly declare that “the Romanian People’s Republic is a kind of prison «Sing Sing» in USA”, consequently I was almost to be expelled from school, being, after all, only sanctioned by a reprimand with avertisment within the Youth Workers’ Union. This would be one of the big differences between me and Adrian Paunescu, I publicly criticized the communist regime, it is true, only once after that I learned mind, getting a whole afternoon punches in plex, after neck in the cellars of authorities of that time, while my late colleague at the Writers’ Union of Romania did never do it, but, contrary, he extolled the virtues of the political leader, thus becoming a millionaire in lei, even before 1989. The richest of “culturnici”! God to forgive the sins of this particularly inventive political opportunist, in my opinion!

I finished with the bracket concerning the writer and politician Adrian Paunescu.

The silence of communist, “dejist” and “ceausist”, authorities, on the personality of Iuliu Hossu can be explained, in my opinion, analyzing the biography of the last 22 years of the  life of the “Herald” of Great Union.

Iuliu Hossu, born on January 30, 1885, in Milas, in Transylvania, died on May 28, 1970, at the Hospital “Colentina”, in Bucharest, from December 4, 1917, bishop at the Diocese of Gherla of the Greek – Catholic Church, who red “The Resolution of Union” on December 1, 1918, and who, as part of the delegation sent to Bucharest by Great National Council, delegation composed also by Alexandru Vaida – Voevod, Miron Cristea and Vasile Goldis, handed the “Act of Union” to the King Ferdinand I, was arrested by communist authorities on October 28, 1948. The reason for this arrest was Iuliu Hossu’s refusal to converse to Orthodoxy. He was under house arrest at the patriarchal villa from Dragoslavele, at the  Caldarusani Monastery, then, between 1950 and 1956, he was imprisoned in Sighet, then he had again house arrest at the Curtea de Arges Monastery, at the Ciorogârla Monastery and again, until his death, at Caldarusani Monastery.

This is the reason! “Dejist” and “ceausist” communist authorities, had committed an extremely heinous crime, which they sought to hide. The “herald” of the Great Union has spent the last 22 years of his life – as an irony, just as years has existed the Greater Romania – either in prison or under house arrest in various monasteries for the crime of being consistent in his religious faith, nonexistent crime in a country with a true democracy.

Also, many “culturnici”, people of culture before 1989, existing and after 1989 in all fields of culture, are striving hard to hide the crimes of communism. Consequently, even in the annual festivities since 1989, dedicated to the Great Union it was talking, i talking and will be talking more, less or not at all about Iuliu Hossu, depending on the influence of former “culturnici” on the display of the festivities, to avoid that Romanians find out for the first time or to remember about criminal conviction by the “dejist” and “ceausist” communist authorities of the “herald” of the Great Union.

In 1995, I composed a poem entitled “At the Nonexistent Statue of Iuliu Hossu”, because, at that time, there was no statue of Iuliu Hossu across Romania. The first statue of Iuliu Hossu was unveiled in Alba Iulia, on December 1, 1998, with the occasion of fulfiling of 80 years from the proclamation of the Great Union. The author of the statue is Simion Moldovan. This statue is part of a group of statues in front of the Great Hall of Union in Alba Iulia. In 2015, I published this poem on my blog “Carturaria”, but with the title “The Statue of Iuliu Hossu in Alba Iulia”.

 

Doru Ciucescu

 

The text is part from the volume in course of translation “Files from the Whispering History of Romanians”

(The translation from Romanian and the adaptation are realized by the author himself)